The Future Highway and Public Transportation Finance Study was commissioned by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce through the National Chamber Foundation. The objective of this two-phased study is to identify funding mechanisms to meet national highway and transit investment needs. Phase I focuses on short-term funding for the period 2005 through 2015, starting with the reauthorization of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). It examines Federal options that would increase Federal Highway Trust Fund (HTF) revenues, and options that could enable and stimulate greater investment by states, local government, and the private sector. Phase II addresses long-term funding mechanisms, including alternatives to the current fuel tax-based system.